BiDi technology can allow transceiver modules to transmit and receive data to/from the interconnected network devices (like network switches or routers) via a single optical fiber, saving fiber costs. BiDi transmission is the most basic and actually the initial form of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and BiDi transceivers are equipped with WDM couplers/diplexers using two wavelengths, one for upstream and one for downstream communication.
For example, from point A we have installed a BiDi transceiver that transmits TX on 1310nm towards point B on a single fiber. In point B there is a transceiver that receives RX on 1310nm and transmits back to point A on 1550nm on the same fiber, then in point A the RX frequency is on 1550nm. It also means that BiDi transceivers should be deployed in pairs—each part transmits at an opposite wavelength.